Julius Caesar biography: Facts & history

Caius Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in the Roman senate in 44 B.C.
He was the most powerful person in the Roman Republic by the time he was killed. Adrian Goldsworthy wrote in his book "Caesar: Life of a Colossus" that he was a politician and a monarch, but he never took the name king.
He was a fugitive, prisoner, rising politician, army leader, legal advocate, rebel, dictator, as well as a husband, father, lover and adulterer in his fifty-six years.
The Roman Empire had rulers, expansion and fall.

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Early life.

Caesar's parents were named Caius and Aurelia and they both had the same name. There is no evidence that this birthing method was used to deliver Julius Caesar. Although the procedure would later bear his name, there is no evidence that Caesar was delivered by Caesarean section in the ancient world.

Caesar was the son of a wealthy family. The family was members of the oldest class of Rome's aristocracy, who ruled over many more people than the Romans. Caesar's family was not very powerful at the time he was born, but some of his ancestors were senior officials in the Roman Republic.
The ancient Greek author Plutarch wrote that Caesar was politically active as a teenager, opposing Sulla, who became dictator of Rome in 82 B.C. Caesar's decision may have been influenced by the fact that one of Sulla's most prominent opponents, Gaius Marius, had married into Caesar's family. Caesar was forced to flee Rome because Sulla was fond of having his opponents murdered. He was captured by Sulla's soldiers but escaped by paying a bribe.
Why did Rome fall?

Lindos and Rhodes have Roman ruins. Caesar was kidnapped by pirates while he was on his way to Rhodes. Mara Brandl is credited with the imageBROKER/Mara Brandl via the images.

After Sulla died in 78 B.C., Caesar was able to return to Rome, but he left soon after to study oratory on Rhodes, an island near modern-day Turkey. According to several near-contemporary writers, Caesar was captured by pirates at some point during his journey and died as a result. "When the pirates demanded twenty talents for his ransom, he Caesar laughed at them for not knowing who their captive was, and of his own accord agreed to give them fifty", wrote Plutarch. Silver is likely, but Plutarch doesn't say what the talents were. Historians disagree on how much a Roman talent could weigh at a given time, but it is likely that it was between 60 to 100 pounds.

Caesar was with the pirates while the money was being collected. He wrote poems and speeches which he read aloud to them, and those who did not like them, he would call to their faces, and often threaten to hang them. The pirates attributed his boldness of speech to a certain simplicity and boyish joy.

Caesar's threats to kill the pirates were serious. Caesar was released after the ransom was paid and he immediately manned vessels and put to sea from the harbour of Miletus. Caesar took the robbers out of prison and crucified them all, just as he had warned them, as he caught them, still lying at anchor off the island.

Caesar's influence is growing.

Caesar's political career took off after he returned to Rome around 74 B.C., and he used his family's wealth and skills to help grow his power.
He had a large and gradually increasing political influence because of his lavish hospitality and the general splendour of his mode of life.
Caesar was an eloquent speaker who was able to turn personal tragedies into political gains. Caesar used his first wife's funeral to grow his support by breaking with tradition and giving an oration that appealed to the people and showcased his caring side.
Caesar went into debt so that he could continue to give out gifts and buy political support. He was buying things of the highest value at a small price, even though he was thought to be purchasing a short-lived fame at a great price. Caesar spent large amounts of his own money on public projects, games and other benefits when he was elected or named to another office.
Caesar commanded an army that fought against tribes who opposed Roman rule in part of Iberia from 61 to 60 B.C.
Caesar was forced to go deeper into debt and formed an alliance with Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of the wealthiest people in Rome, who agreed to financially assist Caesar in exchange for his political support. The two men allied with Pompey, a powerful Roman general and politician, to form a triumvirate that ruled over the Roman Republic. Caesar married his daughter Julia in 59 B.C. to forge a closer alliance.
Caesar made a name for himself as a military commander after he was given command of a large military force in Gaul. Between 58 B.C. and 50 B.C., his armies conquered Gaul and eventually landed in Britain. His forces fought Germanic tribes on the frontiers of Germany.
There is a large amount of Roman-era silver coins in Germany.

Vercingetorix, a Gaul who led the Gallic resistance against the Romans, surrendered to Julius Caesar in the 19th century. The image is courtesy of Grafissimo.

The death toll was very high. "In his triumph in 46 B.C., Caesar listed the number of enemy soldiers killed in all his battles as 1,192,000," wrote Kurt Raaflaub, a professor of classics and history at Brown University. The total doesn't include non-combatants killed during Caesar's military campaigns.

The Gallic population was killed by the Roman sword. The large parts of the country that had harvests were destroyed or had settlements burned down, and they were left to starve to death.

Caesar documented his military campaign in a series of books. Caesar claimed that he tried to arrange truces and agreements with the tribes from Gaul, but he also stated that he had no qualms about harming civilians. Caesar wrote that after one group left his army he burned all their villages and houses and cut down their corn. He used the same tactics when he arrived in Britain. He wrote that damage should be done to the enemy.

Civil war.

The triumvirate between Caesar, Pompey and Crassus did not last. Julia gave birth in 54 B.C., ending the marriage alliance between Caesar and Pompey. In 53 B.C., the Parthians killed Crassus in Turkey.

In January 49 B.C., Caesar led his troops across the river and to Rome. The phrase "the die is cast" was said by Caesar as he crossed the Rubicon.
Pompey retreated to Greece and the Balkans to get reinforcements. He was defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C. Ptolemy XIII was the teenage pharaoh of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled alone while Cleopatra was in exile, despite being supposed to co-rule with her.
Ptolemy killed Pompey and presented his head to Caesar when he arrived in Alexandria. Ptolemy expected Caesar to be happy about having his enemy removed, but he was not and he did not want the pharaoh to kill Pompey. Cleopatra VII was ordered by Caesar to take up her position as co-ruler of Egypt. Ptolemy tried to fight Caesar and Cleopatra but was killed.
Caesarion was the son of Cleopatra and Caesar. Caesar never acknowledged the child as his own, even though historians argue that the child was truly Caesar's.
The rule is sole.

Caesar was the sole ruler of the Roman Republic after Pompey's death.

Some Roman senators, such as the Younger, refused to accept Caesar's rule because there were still forces that were loyal to Pompey. Caesar defeated the forces in North Africa and Spain. Pontus, a Black Sea kingdom, was defeated by Pompey a few decades ago. Caesar is said to have said "I came, I saw, I conquered" after defeating Pontus. Even though Caesar did a lot, there were still many in Rome who did not like the idea of a single man having so much power. Caesar was willing to pardon his former opponents.

He pardoned and promoted many former enemies. Sulla, who had been the sole ruler of Rome, had thousands of his fellow Romans murdered after he took power.

Where is Cleopatra's tomb?

The assassination of Julius Caesar was depicted in a 19th-century engraving. The image is courtesy of Grafissimo.

Caesar implemented a new calendar system in Rome in 45 B.C., which featured an extra day in February every four years. Caesar learned about the calendar system in Alexandria, which made the Roman calendar more in line with the seasons. July was named after Caesar because he was born there.
Mary Beard, a professor of classics at the University of Cambridge, wrote in her book "SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome" that the new calendar was more significant than his dalliance with Cleopatra.

Caesar was named the "dictator for life" by the Roman senate. Caesar had enough support from the senate to get the measure passed, but there were many senators who were opposed to giving Caesar the title. After fighting against Caesar, both of them were forgiven by him and were able to retain their positions in the senate. Caesar was stabbed to death by a group of senators in the senate on March 15.
Three major groups gained power in Rome after Caesar's death. Caesar's great-nephew was named as his adopted son and heir in his will. Mark Antony, one of Caesar's generals, led the other group. Rome fell into civil war again.
There are additional resources.

The history of the calendar can be found here.
The time of Caesar's invasion of Britain is what the fort is about.
There is a chance that Caesar was stabbed in the spot that was discovered.