Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive chemicals that contain oxygen radicals, are high-reactivity chemicals. The most common examples of ROS are peroxides and superoxides as well as singlet oxygen and alpha-oxygen. They are widely used in many industrial and domestic processes. ROS can be naturally formed by a variety biochemical reactions in the cell organelles, such as the mitochondria, endoplasmic retina and peroxisomes. ROS can also be formed by the normal metabolism. ROS can also be produced by drugs, heavy metals and tobacco smoke. According to various experiments, ROS can act as either a tumor suppressing agent or a tumor promoting agent. An elevated level of ROS can cause tumor growth to stop by a persistent increase in cell cycle inhibition. An increase in ROS levels can cause apoptosis via both intrinsic and extracellular pathways. ROS can be considered a tumor suppressing agent because it is produced by most chemotherapeutic drugs that activate cell death. ROS's cytotoxic effects can stimulate apoptosis, but at higher levels ROS can trigger malignancy and uncontrolled cell death. Some ROS species can also influence cell proliferation and other activities at the cellular level. This article, published in Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, explains how ROS can be used in cancer therapy.
According to scientific reports, ROS can promote cell proliferation or death depending on where and how intense the oxidative burst is. The intensity and duration of the redox signals, as well as defense mechanisms of antioxidants, will determine whether ROS can stimulate cell growth or death. ROS partially activates anti-cancer drugs, which can cause harm to normal cells. These ROS species can reverse cell effects and promote cell proliferation, tumor progression, or death. ROS can be considered a "double-edged sword", acting as both disease inducers and sustainers as well as therapeutic weapons against cancer cells. Increased levels of ROS in mitochondria have been shown to increase cell proliferation, survival, and epithelial/mesenchymal transition via Ras-ERK activation and mitogen-activated proteins kinase.
These intracellular effects are important to consider when determining whether reactive oxygen species may be used therapeutically to treat different types of cancer cells. Anti-cancer drugs can be formulated using ROS formation or modulation. Researchers can use molecular signals to distinguish between cancer and normal cells, allowing them to target cancer cells in vivo. Although there are many current methods of ROS signaling in tumor biology, it is still difficult to understand the dual nature ROS. Cancer therapies that target ROS face a significant challenge. Understanding ROS properties as a major factor in signaling pathways could offer hope for safer and more effective pharmacological anticancer interventions in future.
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aRoland University of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Biju Panaik University Of Technology Nodal Center of Research), Berhampur-760010 Odisha, India
bDepartment of Mathematics and Natural Sciences College of Sciences and Human Studies Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University Al Khobar Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
cCSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organization Chandigarh (India);
dDepartment Of Chemistry, MRK Educational Institutions. IGU Rewari Haryana, India.
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