Bad news is when there's a nova. They can cause death and destruction with radiation. A recent study shows that a special type of supernova can destroy a planet's ozone layer years after the initial explosion.
Some of the most brilliant objects in the universe can be found when giant stars die. The combined light of hundreds of billions of stars can't be seen by a single supernova.
The star Betelgeuse is going to explode anytime now. Sometime within the next few million years, that's an "any day." When the star goes supernova, it will be the second-brightest object in the sky. The Betelgeuse will be visible during the day. During the peak of the blast, it will be so bright that it will be hard to see.
The Supernova alert is related. There is a way to predict star deaths.
The visible light portion of a supernova is only a small part of the total energy output. It doesn't have a lot of other serious effects when it comes to blinding. The high-energy radiation associated with the supernova can be seen in the form of X-rays andgamma-rays.
Oxygen can be created by high-energy radiation. Without the ozone layer, life on the surface of our planet would suffer the full blast of UV radiation from the sun, which could lead to extinction.
Within the first few seconds of a supernova there is a radiation blast. The Cosmic rays burst out of the maelstrom hundreds or thousands of years later. They have a small amount of the total supernova energy with them, and they can also strip the ozone layer from a planet.
It's possible that these events happened in the past. The analysis of lunar regolith and deep-sea core shows a lot of iron-60. It is believed that Earth was hit by a supernova as recently as a few million years ago.
Astronomers have concluded that we are relatively safe because there are no nearby supernova candidates that could pose a threat to life.
A paper posted to the preprint database arXiv in October states that a certain class of supernova can release a form of deadly radiation that poses a serious danger to Earth-like planets.
There is a special class of supernova when a star is surrounded by material. A shock wave forms after the first explosion. The disk emits high amounts of X-ray radiation as a result of the shock wave.
Large amounts of energy can be carried away by this radiation. The bright X-ray supernovas can deplete a planet's ozone layer by 50%, which is enough to cause an extinction event out to 150 light-years.
A deadly one-two punch is created by these types of supernovas. A vulnerable planet would be bombarded by X-rays months or years later. The biosphere had a chance to replenish its protective layer before the Cosmic rays came.
We know of no X-ray supernova nearby. The study places limits on the area of the universe that can support life. The star formation is too low in the farthest reaches of the universe. The dense cores, where stars live and die at a frenetic pace, are also deadly.
The new study shows that the inner edge of the galaxy is not as close to the core as we thought. Earth is in one of the safest neighborhoods of the whole universe despite being hit here and there.
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