Alfred Nobel wanted the third prize to be medicine, and he mentioned it in his will.
From 1901 to today, here are the winners.
The discovery of the genomes of extinct hominins and humans was made by Svante Pbo.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian were awarded the prize for their discoveries.
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The discovery of the Hepatitis C virus was made by Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles Rice.
The discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability were made by three men.
The discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation was made by James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo. A person's immune system is put on hold by two different genes. The researchers were able to harness a person's own immune system to fight cancer by releasing the brakes.
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young were awarded the prize for their work.
Human cells also partake in the process of self-eating, which has been linked to diseases, thanks to the discoveries of Ohsumi.
Campbell and mura discovered a new treatment for infections caused by parasites. Youyou Tu was awarded the other half of the prize for her work. More on the prize in medicine.
The discovery of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain was made by May-Britt and Edvard I. Moser.
They were awarded for their work in revealing how cells control the delivery and release of molecule.
Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka were honored for their work.
Bruce A. Beutler, Jules A. Hoffmann, and Dr. Steinman won the prize. Half of the prize went to Steinman, Beutler and Hoffmann. Immune system researchers win a prize.
In the year 2010, Robert G.Edwards was mentioned.
The discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres was made in 2009.
The discoveries of human immunodeficiency virus and human papillomaviruses were made in 2008.
Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, and Oliver Smithies were honored for their discoveries.
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello were honored for their discovery.
The discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease was made by Barry J Marshall and J. Robin Warren.
They were awarded for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.
Sir Peter Mansfield and Paul C. Lauterbur were honored for their discoveries.
They were awarded for their discoveries concerning "genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death."
"For their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle."
Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric R. Kandel were honored for their discoveries.
The discovery that proteins have signals that govern their transport was made in 1999.
They discovered that nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system.
The discovery of Prions was made by Stanley B. Prusiner.
They were awarded for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defense.
Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nsslein-Volhard, and Eric F.
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell were honored for their discovery of G-proteins.
"For their discoveries of split genes."
They were honored for their discoveries about the biological regulatory mechanism.
The discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells were made by the two men.
"For their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease."
"For their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes."
"For their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment."
Tonegawa was awarded for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of Antibody Diversity.
Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini were honored for their discoveries.
The discovery of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism was made by Michael S. Brown.
"For theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production ofonoclonal antibodies."
For her discovery of mobile genetic elements.
Sune K. Bergstrm and John R. Vane were awarded for their discoveries.
Roger W. Sperry and David H. Hubel and Torsten N.
"For their discoveries regarding genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions."
Cormack and Hounsfield were involved in the development of computer assisted tomography.
Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith, and Werner Arber were honored for their discoveries.
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally were awarded for their discoveries regarding the production of the brain's brain cells.
They were awarded for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.
"For their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumours viruses and the genetic material of the cell."
Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, and George E. Palade were honored for their discoveries.
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, and Nikolaas Tinbergen were awarded for their discoveries.
The discovery of the chemical structure of antibodies was made by Gerald M.
"For his discoveries about the mechanisms of the action of hormones."
"For their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and ineffectiveness."
Max Delbrck, Alfred D. Hershey, and Salvador E. Luria were honored for their discoveries.
"For their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in synthesis."
"For their discoveries concerning the primary visual processes in the eye."
The discovery of tumours-inducing viruses and the discovery of hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer were made in 1966.
Franois Jacob,André Lwoff, and Jacques Monod were honored for their discoveries.
Konrad and Feodor discovered the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and Fatty Acid metabolism.
The ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cells were discovered by Sir John Carew Eccles.
"For their discoveries regarding the structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material."
The discovery of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea was made by the man.
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar were involved in the discovery of immunological tolerance.
The mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid have been discovered.
"For their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events" and "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material ofbacteria"
Daniel Bovet was awarded for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances.
They were honored for their discoveries about heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.
Hugo Theodor Theorell was honoured for his discoveries.
The discovery of the ability ofviruses to grow in cultures of different types of tissue was made by John Franklin Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins.
The citric acid cycle and co-enzyme A were discovered by Hans Adolf Krebs.
Selman Abraham Waksman was awarded for his discovery of the first antibiotic that worked against Tuberculosis.
In 1951, Max Theiler was honored for his discoveries.
"For their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects."
Paul Mller was awarded for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison.
Both Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori were awarded for their discoveries.
The discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation was made by the man.
The discovery of penicillin and its effect on infectious diseases was made in 1945.
For their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers.
"For his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamins K and K" was the citation given to the two men.
There was no award of a prize in 1942.
There was no prize awarded in 1941.
In 1940, there was no prize awarded.
The discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil was made by Domagk.
Corneille Jean Franois Heymans was awarded for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms.
Albert von Szent-Gyrgyi Nagyrpolt was awarded for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes.
Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi were awarded for their discoveries.
Hans Spemann was awarded for his discovery of the organizers effect in embryology.
"For their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia" was the title of 1934's award.
The role played by the chromosomes in heredity was discovered by Thomas Hunt Morgan.
"For their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons."
Otto Warburg was awarded for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratoryidase.
It was Karl Landsteiner who discovered human blood groups.
"For his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins" and "for his discovery of the anti-neuritic vitamins" were written about in 1929.
"For his work on typhus."
The discovery of the therapeutic value of Malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica was made by JuliusWagner-Jauregg.
"For his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma" was written on the plaque.
There was no prize awarded in 1925.
It was for his discovery of the electrocardiogram.
In 1923, Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod were named for their discoveries.
There was no prize awarded in the year 1921.
The discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism was made by the man in 1920.
For his discoveries relating to immunity.
There was no award of a prize in 1918.
There was no award of a prize in 1917.
1916: no award of a prestigious prize.
There was no award of a prize in 1915.
Robert Brny was awarded for his work on the vestibular apparatus.
The work of Charles Robert Richet was recognized in 1913.
Carrel was recognized for his work on blood vessels and organs.
For his work on the dioptrics of the eye.
The contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work are recognized.
Theodor Kocher was awarded for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the neck and throat.
They were recognized for their work on immunity.
The work of Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran was recognized in 1907.
They were recognized for their work on the structure of the nervous system.
Robert Koch was honoured for his work in relation to Tuberculosis.
The knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged thanks to the work of IvanPetrovich Pavlov.
He has opened a new avenue for medical science as a result of his contribution to the treatment of diseases.
Ronald Ross has laid the groundwork for successful research on this disease and methods of fighting it by showing how it enters the organisms.
"For his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thus placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths."