A woman approaches a large Sumerian ziggurat.

The analysis of the genomes of hundreds of humans who lived from the Neolithic period to the Ottoman period is provided in three new papers. The research adds to the story of dispersal and connection.

Sources representing a diversity of people were used in the research. Some of the people were elites in their day, and one sample came from the tomb of a wealthy man. Another came from the Amesbury archer, a wealthy man who was buried some 4,300 years ago near the site of the famous stone circle. In the Late Bronze and Early Iron ages, 26 people were entombed in an Armenian necropolis.

A team of over 200 researchers, including geneticists and genomicists, archaeologists, and human evolutionary biologists, conducted the analysis to clarify the migrations of some ancient human populations. The journal Science publishes their research.

The Big Picture of the Eastern Mediterranean will be described thoroughly in the data. The lead author of the research said in an email that other researchers can use their data to infer the ancestry of migrants. The map of migrations of the past is getting better.

Three studies are included in the research. The Southern Arc is a region that spans westernmost Asia and southeastern Europe. The Southern Arc is the location of some of the earliest farming cultures. The Fertile Crescent is often referred to as the "Cradle of Civilization." It is questionable how to refer to the region.

The naming of the Southern Arc conjures a map projection that centers on the western tip of Eurasia rather than the Anatolian peninsula, wrote Benjamin Arbuckle and ZOE Schwandt, anthropology professors at UNC-Chapel Hill. Narratives based on genomes often show a high-altitude view of history, mostly devoid of individuals despite being derived from its most personal components.

Schwandt and Arbuckle said that history is made through vague processes of migration.

Stone-covered graves in Armenia are seen in these aerial image.

The first paper found that ancient speakers of languages from Europe are related to a group of pastoralists from the north. The Yamnaya culture expanded into the Southern Arc based on the genetic variation of hundreds of ancient people.

The influence of the steppe didn't reach Anatolia. The speakers of the Hittite and Luwian languages are thought to have come from the east and not from the steppe.

The second paper introduces the first ancient DNA from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic culture in Mesopotamia. There are at least two dispersals of humans from the Fertile Crescent into Anatolia.

Ron Pinhasi, a biological anthropologist at the University of Vienna and a co-author of the work, said that the genetic results lend support to a scenario of pan-regional contacts between early farming communities. The Neolithic transition was a complex process that took place across Anatolia and the Near East.

Greek elites in Mycenae were found to be similar to the general population, and there wasn't much mixing between people in Eastern Turkey and Southern Armenia.

The ancient source populations are very different from one another, and the authors have found a reduction in this over the last 10,000 years.

One of the main highlights of the papers was this process. They found differences in many locations, which raises questions about why the patterns evolved.

The remains of the ancient Greek town Akrotiri.

The demographic core of the Roman Empire was represented by the people of ancient Anatolia, who were genetically distinct from other populations through the Byzantine period.

According to Arbuckle and Schwandt, the researchers have produced an amazing dataset. The growth of ancient genomic data will continue to change views of human history. If researchers recognize their lack of neutrality and embrace their role in constructing narratives, this work can be particularly effective.

Scientists will be able to untangle more nuances of human dispersal and intermingling through time as a result of improved aDNA Sequencing methods. The connected question of who we are can be explained on a base-pair level.

Footprints suggest that humans migrated deep into North America earlier than previously known.