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The bottom of the organization knows a lot about innovation. Many non-management employees think of innovation outside of their jobs. They don't participate because the organization discourages it Authority bias is the tendency to over value opinions from the top of the hierarchy and under value opinions from the bottom. The side effect of hierarchy is one of the reasons why top-up innovation is so important. How can organizations create an idea-meritocracy in which title, position, and authority are more important than debate? The cultural flatness is achieved by a condition in which power distance doesn't restrict the flow of information. Three practical steps leaders can take to change authority bias, embrace cultural flatness, and unleash bottom up innovation are presented by the author.

The speed of discovery is affected by the quality of interactions between teammates. The pattern of exchange will be free flowing if the team is healthy. The team will either retreat into silence or a combination of the two if it is unhealthy.